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Attack damage ( ) is the amount of damage a unit is shown to deal with a regular attack. A unit's total attack damage is the sum of its main attack damage (white) and bonus attack damage (green). Attack damage is and can be modified by many different effects in the game, and ends up going through a number of steps in order to determine how much damage an attack actually deals as its overall or total attack damage.

Total Attack Damage[]

Properties of a level 1 Sniper minimap icon.png Sniper with Blades of Attack icon.png Blades of Attack: Sniper's base attack damage varies by 6; main attack damage is white, bonus attack damage green.

Calculating the total damage of an attack involves using many different multipliers and values. Total attack damage is synonymous with how much health a target immediately loses as a direct result of the attack. Some on-hit effects that are not affected by critical strike are still considered part of attack damage, and some are not.

Total Attack Damage Sources[]

The following abilities reduces the affected unit's damage before damage block is applied.

1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard.
3 Main attack damage is only reduced for the instant attack, so that only the ability can use it.
4 Total attack damage is only reduced for the Arc Warden Tempest Double minimap icon.png Tempest Double if the penalty distance is exceeded or Arc Warden is dead.

Main Attack Damage[]

Main attack damage is the damage value shown in white numbers on a hero's statistics consisting of the base attack damage with the damage granted by a hero's primary attribute on top. A hero's main attack damage can only be increased by raising its primary attribute, or by very few specific abilities.

Attribute points can be acquired by leveling up, or by using specific items, abilities, or Talent talents that grants bonus attributes.

Primary Attribute Main Attack Damage/Point
Strength attribute symbol.png Strength +1
Agility attribute symbol.png Agility +1
Intelligence attribute symbol.png Intelligence +1

Main Attack Damage is defined as

Main Attack Damage = (Base Attack Damage + Σ Primary Attribute) × (1 - Modifiers i)

For a detailed table of all 123 heroes' main attack damage, please refer to this page.

Main Attack Damage Sources[]

Increasing Sources[]

The following items and abilities manipulates the primary attribute of the hero, and therefore increasing its main attack damage.

Main Attack Damage Increasing Sources
Strength attribute symbol.png Strength[]
Strength Items
Item Value Item Cost Cost/Value Point
Abyssal Blade icon.png Abyssal Blade 35 6250 Gold 178.57 Gold
Black King Bar icon.png Black King Bar 34 4050 Gold 119.12 Gold
Echo Sabre icon.png Echo Sabre 28 2500 Gold 89.29 Gold
Gleipnir icon.png Gleipnir 44 6150 Gold 139.77 Gold
Ring of Aquila (Active) icon.png Ring of Aquila 6 N/A N/A
Satanic icon.png Satanic 63 5050 Gold 80.16 Gold
Skull Basher icon.png Skull Basher 35 2875 Gold 82.14 Gold
Values may include portions from actives or auras.


1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard.
Agility attribute symbol.png Agility[]
Agility Items
Item Value Item Cost Cost/Value Point
Butterfly icon.png Butterfly 55 4975 Gold 90.45 Gold
Gleipnir icon.png Gleipnir 44 6150 Gold 139.77 Gold
Ring of Aquila (Active) icon.png Ring of Aquila 12 N/A N/A
Values may include portions from actives or auras.


1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard.
Intelligence attribute symbol.png Intelligence[]
Intelligence Items
Item Value Item Cost Cost/Value Point
Bloodthorn icon.png Bloodthorn 70 6800 Gold 97.14 Gold
Echo Sabre icon.png Echo Sabre 25 2500 Gold 100 Gold
Gleipnir icon.png Gleipnir 54 6150 Gold 113.89 Gold
Mage Slayer icon.png Mage Slayer 30 2400 Gold 80 Gold
Oblivion Staff icon.png Oblivion Staff 25 1500 Gold 60 Gold
Ring of Aquila (Active) icon.png Ring of Aquila 6 N/A N/A
Values may include portions from actives or auras.


Intelligence Increasing Sources
1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard.
Talents[]

Reducing Sources[]

Some abilities reduces main attack damage based on percentages, and some abilities manipulates the primary attribute of the hero, and therefore reducing its main attack damage.

1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard.

Base Attack Damage[]

Base attack damage is the part of the main attack damage that stays the same throughout a game. It consists of two values, a minimum and maximum amount. Every time an attack is issued, a random value between the minimum and maximum is chosen to help decide the damage output.

The most extreme hero example of this is Chaos Knight minimap icon.png Chaos Knight, with his base attack damage ranging between 29 – 59, causing his damage output to be somewhat unpredictable. This range of 30 is always part of his attack calculations, no matter how many attributes or how much bonus attack damage he acquires.

Abilities[]

Base Attack Damage Increasing Sources

Talents[]

The following heroes have a Talent talent that grants them base attack damage.

Bonus Level 10 Level 15 Level 20 Level 25
Left Right Left Right Left Right Left Right
Base Damage
  • Omniknight minimap icon.png +50
  • Earthshaker minimap icon.png +30
Heroes Talent Bonuses Σ Base Attack Damage
Earthshaker minimap icon.png +30 57 – 67
Omniknight minimap icon.png +50 81 – 91

Bonus Attack Damage[]

Bonus attack damage is the attack damage value shown in green numbers with a plus on the left, right after the white attack damage number on a unit's statistics. Whenever a bonus attack damage granting item or ability shows a +Attack Damage, e.g. Blades of Attack icon.png Blades of Attack +9 Damage, it increases the bonus attack damage of the affected unit.

Probably the most important difference between main and bonus attack damage is that illusions only benefit from main attack damage, although their HUD still shows the bonus armor just like on other heroes, to make them less obvious to the enemy.

There are two types of bonus attack damage:


Bonus Attack Damage is defined as

Bonus Attack Damage = (Main Attack Damage × (1 + Bonus Value Modifiers i) + Flat Bonus Values

Bonus Attack Damage Sources[]

Increasing Sources[]

Percentage Bonuses[]
Flat Bonuses[]
1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard.
3 Damage is granted for the ability and is immediately removed afterward, so that only the ability can use it.
4a Grants flat attack damage bonus to Persuaded units only.
Talents[]

The following heroes have a Talent talent that grants them flat bonus attack damage.

Bonus Level 10 Level 15 Level 20 Level 25
Left Right Left Right Left Right Left Right
Damage
  • Sniper minimap icon.png +15
  • Winter Wyvern minimap icon.png +35
  • Lion minimap icon.png +60
  • Brewmaster minimap icon.png +15
  • Bristleback minimap icon.png +15
  • Dragon Knight minimap icon.png +15
  • Ember Spirit minimap icon.png +15
  • Queen of Pain minimap icon.png +20
  • Lina minimap icon.png +25
  • Beastmaster minimap icon.png +30
  • Death Prophet minimap icon.png +30
  • Kunkka minimap icon.png +30
  • Dazzle minimap icon.png +50
  • Alchemist minimap icon.png +20
  • Spirit Breaker minimap icon.png +40
  • Lifestealer minimap icon.png +25
  • Enchantress minimap icon.png +45
  • Abaddon minimap icon.png +65
  • Ogre Magi minimap icon.png +80
  • Troll Warlord minimap icon.png +30
  • Techies minimap icon.png +252

The majority of attack damage increasing Talent talents grants bonus attack damage. Therefore, it does not benefit illusions and is not affected by most percentage-based damage increasing or reducing effects.

Items[]
Flat Bonus Attack Damage Increasing Items
Item Value Item Cost Cost/Value Point
Abyssal Blade icon.png Abyssal Blade 25 6250 Gold 250 Gold
Armlet of Mordiggian (Inactive) icon.png Armlet of Mordiggian 15 2500 Gold 166.67 Gold
Battle Fury icon.png Battle Fury 60 4100 Gold 68.33 Gold
Black King Bar icon.png Black King Bar 24 4050 Gold 168.75 Gold
Blade Mail icon.png Blade Mail 28 2100 Gold 75 Gold
Blades of Attack icon.png Blades of Attack 9 N/A N/A
Blades of Attack icon.png Blades of Attack 9 450 Gold 50 Gold
Bloodthorn icon.png Bloodthorn 50 6800 Gold 136 Gold
Brigand's Blade icon.png Brigand's Blade 10 N/A N/A
Broadsword icon.png Broadsword 15 1000 Gold 66.67 Gold
Broom Handle icon.png Broom Handle 8 N/A N/A
Butterfly icon.png Butterfly 25 4975 Gold 199 Gold
Claymore icon.png Claymore 20 1350 Gold 67.5 Gold
Crystalys icon.png Crystalys 32 1950 Gold 60.94 Gold
Daedalus icon.png Daedalus 88 5150 Gold 58.52 Gold
Demon Edge icon.png Demon Edge 40 2200 Gold 55 Gold
Desolator icon.png Desolator 50 3500 Gold 70 Gold
Divine Rapier icon.png Divine Rapier 350 5950 Gold 17 Gold
Echo Sabre icon.png Echo Sabre 15 2500 Gold 166.67 Gold
Faerie Fire icon.png Faerie Fire 2 70 Gold 35 Gold
Falcon Blade icon.png Falcon Blade 12 1125 Gold 93.75 Gold
Gleipnir icon.png Gleipnir 30 6150 Gold 205 Gold
Maelstrom icon.png Maelstrom 24 2700 Gold 112.5 Gold
Mage Slayer icon.png Mage Slayer 20 2400 Gold 120 Gold
Mask of Madness icon.png Mask of Madness 10 1775 Gold 177.5 Gold
Mind Breaker icon.png Mind Breaker 25 N/A N/A
Mithril Hammer icon.png Mithril Hammer 24 1600 Gold 66.67 Gold
Mjollnir icon.png Mjollnir 24 5600 Gold 233.33 Gold
Monkey King Bar icon.png Monkey King Bar 40 4975 Gold 124.38 Gold
Nullifier icon.png Nullifier 80 4725 Gold 59.06 Gold
Oblivion Staff icon.png Oblivion Staff 15 1500 Gold 100 Gold
Orchid Malevolence icon.png Orchid Malevolence 30 3475 Gold 115.83 Gold
Paladin Sword icon.png Paladin Sword 16 N/A N/A
Penta-Edged Sword icon.png Penta-Edged Sword 45 N/A N/A
Quarterstaff icon.png Quarterstaff 10 875 Gold 87.5 Gold
Radiance (Active) icon.png Radiance 60 5050 Gold 84.17 Gold
Ring of Aquila (Active) icon.png Ring of Aquila 3 N/A N/A
Sacred Relic icon.png Sacred Relic 60 3750 Gold 62.5 Gold
Satanic icon.png Satanic 38 5050 Gold 132.89 Gold
Shadow Blade icon.png Shadow Blade 20 3000 Gold 150 Gold
Silver Edge icon.png Silver Edge 52 5450 Gold 104.81 Gold
Skull Basher icon.png Skull Basher 25 2875 Gold 115 Gold
Stygian Desolator icon.png Stygian Desolator 60 N/A N/A
Values may include portions from actives or auras.

Reducing Sources[]

Abilities Applying Bonus Attack Damage Reductions

Critical Strike Multiplier[]

Wraith King minimap icon.png Wraith King performing a critical strike.
The red number displays the resulting physical damage before reductions.

Main Article: Critical Strike

An attack that triggers Critical Strike has its total damage value multiplied by the given multiplier of the source of the Critical Strike. This means a critical strike is basically an attack damage amplifier, as it does not add extra damage on top of the attack damage, but directly increases the damage of the attack by multiplying it.

It can be defined as

Critical Strike Multiplier = 1 + MAX Ci

The multiplier is applied before any reductions or amplifications on the target or on the attacking unit. It only counts the unit's main attack damage, plus any bonus attack damage (percentage and flat bonuses) it has, meaning any damage instances (i.e. conditional attack damage bonuses) added to the attack damage which is separate from the attack damage itself is not considered by critical strikes.

Therefore, in short, if an ability adds its damage directly to the attack damage, then it may be considered by Critical Strike, though there are exceptions to this. See total attack damage for the complete calculation.

All chance-based sources of Critical Strike use pseudo-random distribution. If an attack procs more than one source of critical strike, only the highest multiplier is applied.

Damage Block[]

Main Article: Damage Block

Axe minimap icon.png Axe blocking damage with Vanguard icon.png Vanguard.
The ocre number displays the total amount of damage blocked.

Damage block reduces any physical damage a unit takes from attacks or from cleave, with the exception of damage dealt by attacks from ward-type units. Does not trigger against magical or pure attack damage. Damage block does not trigger against physical spell damage, with the exception of the abilities listed here. Unlike armor, damage block reduces a fixed amount of damage, instead of a percentage.

When damage block triggers, it blocks damage before other damage reducing effects do. This means that the higher the unit's armor is, the less effective damage block gets. See total attack damage for the complete calculation.

All chance-based sources of damage block use pseudo-random distribution. If an attack activates more than one damage block ability, only the highest block value is applied.

All Melee Melee heroes have an innate Damage Block ability, which has a 50% chance to block 16 damage.

Damage Manipulation[]

Main Articles: Armor and Damage Manipulation

Damage manipulation is a mechanic that alters damage values, either increasing or reducing it. Damage can be manipulated on both ends, from the dealing unit (outgoing damage) and the receiving unit (incoming damage). Armor and magic resistance are the most common damage manipulators, affecting incoming physical and magical damage respectively. Besides armor and magic resistance, a general damage manipulator exists, which is used by almost all other sources of damage manipulation. This manipulator is more flexible, and can amplify or reduce any kind of damage and may affect attack damage, spell damage, or both at the same time.

The damage multiplier limits are 0 and 2, for infinitely positive and negative armor, respectively.

Attack Classes[]

There are several different classes of attack damage (also known as Attack types or attack damage types), which determine how much damage a unit's attack deals against certain unit types. Each of the 3 different attack classes deals either reduced, increased, or unchanged damage against heroes, non-hero units, and structures, on top of it being also manipulated by the armor value of the target.

The attack classes are represented by 3 abilities visible in the unit's HUD. If a unit does not have any of these 3 abilities, their attacks deal 100% damage and is only altered by the target's armor and other damage manipulators.

These abilities are not acquirable via Devour.

Runty
Can be used by illusions. Not disabled by Break.
Runty icon.png
Ability
Passive
Runty Units Deal reduced damage to hero units
Attack Damage Reduction Against Heroes: 25%
Attack Damage Reduction Against Reinforced Units: 30%
Buff/Debuff
Modifiers [?]
modifier_creep_irresolute
Undispellable

Notes:

  • Treats creep-heroes as creeps, except for the Lone Druid Spirit Bear icon.png Spirit Bear, which is treated as a hero.


Piercing
Can be used by illusions. Not disabled by Break.
Piercing icon.png
Ability
Passive
Piercing Units Deal Bonus Damage to non-hero, non-heavy units and reduced damage to heroes and heavy units
Attack Damage Bonus Against Non-Hero Units: 50%
Attack Damage Reduction Against Heroes: 50%
Attack Damage Reduction Against Reinforced: 65%
Buff/Debuff
Modifiers [?]
modifier_creep_piercing
Undispellable

Notes:

  • Treats creep-heroes as creeps, except for the Lone Druid Spirit Bear icon.png Spirit Bear, which is treated as a hero.


Reinforced
Can be used by illusions. Not disabled by Break.
Reinforced icon.png
Ability
Passive
Reinforced Units and Buildings Deal Bonus Damage to other Reinforced Units and Buildings and take less attack damage from other units.
Attack Damage Bonus Against Reinforced Units: 50%
Incoming Hero Attack Damage Reduction: 50%
Incoming Non-Hero Attack Damage Reduction: 30%
Incoming Piercing Attack Damage Reduction: 65%
Buff/Debuff
Modifiers [?]
modifier_creep_siege
Undispellable

Notes:

  • Treats creep-heroes as creeps, except for the Lone Druid Spirit Bear icon.png Spirit Bear, which is treated as a hero.
  • If a non-hero unit has piercing attack, it is only affected by the attack damage reduction against piercing attacks, and not by the reduction against non-hero units.


Attack damage dealt against defense class is defined as

Attack Damage Dealt = Total Attack Damage × Attack Class × Damage Manipulation

This table shows how much damage each attack class deals against each defense class, and which units use which attack class:

Attack Class Used by D amage Against Unit Type
Hero Non-Hero Reinforced
Default Heroes, Clones, Illusions, Creep-Heroes and every single non-hero unit that is not explicitly listed in another attack class 100% 100% 50% / 70%
Runty Mega Melee Creep, Melee Creep, Super Melee Creep 75% 100% 70%
Piercing Ghost, Harpy Scout, Harpy Stormcrafter, Hill Troll Berserker, Hill Troll Priest, Hill Troll, Mega Ranged Creep, Plague Ward, Ranged Creep, Serpent Ward, Super Ranged Creep, Vhoul Assassin 50% 150% 35%
Reinforced Fountain, Melee Barracks, Ranged Barracks, Siege Creep, Super Siege Creep, Tower (Tier 1), Tower (Tier 2), Tower (Tier 3), Tower (Tier 4) 100% 100% 150%

Examples[]

Instant Attacks[]

Instant Attacks are abilities that uses the hero's regular attack damage values as ability damage to the target unit(s) or area. Instant Attacks do not use the hero's attack animation, are independent from attack speed, and ignores the regular downtime between attacks. Certain abilities that deal instant attack damage are not affected by evasion. If an instant attack is performed by a Ranged Ranged hero, it still uses their regular attack projectile for the attack, unless it is set not to.

If an instant attack occurs while already attacking an enemy normally, it does not interfere with the regular attacks. Instant Attacks do not interfere with any other actions of the hero either, meaning they neither interrupt movement, nor cancel ability casts nor stop channeling abilities.

Since instant attacks do not use attack animations and jump straight to the attack point, they cannot proc effects which react on the start of an attack (e.g. Untouchable or Moment of Courage). However, they can proc effects which react on attack hit (e.g. Counter Helix or Retaliate), although there are some exceptions to this.

Instant attacks may proc on-hit effects only when they are allowed to. An instant attack which is not allowed to proc attack modifiers is not allowed to proc on-hit effects either. Evasion and blind fully work against instant attacks. Just like regular attacks, instant attacks also cause the attacking hero to get revealed if attacking from the Fog of War.

The following Instant Attack sources cannot trigger attack modifiers.

Sources That Cannot Trigger Attack Modifiers
1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard.
3 Grants instant attacks to tier 2, 3, and 4 towers.
4 May not proc any attack modifiers or on-hit effects, unless the required Talent talent is chosen.

Attack-based Projectiles[]

Some abilities generate projectiles that are based on an attack, but are technically not an attack. These abilities' projectiles use the source's attack projectile, and deal damage based on the attacking unit's attack damage, and have their damage flagged as attack damage as well, but are not counted as attacks otherwise. Instead, they are treated like regular ability projectiles (like e.g. Magic Missile), and therefore cannot trigger attack modifier or on-hit effects, ignore evasion and blind, and do not reveal the attacking units through the Fog of War. This also means that these abilities continue to use projectiles even when their source is a melee hero.

Instant Attack Sources That Trigger Attack Modifier
1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard.

Attack Immunity[]

Main Article: Attack Immunity

Instant attacks may target attack immune units if they are Ranged ranged instant attacks, but will have no effect when the unit is still attack immune on impact. Instant Melee melee attacks cannot target attack immune units.

Conditional Attack Damage Bonus[]

These abilities give direct attack damage bonuses under certain circumstances, the bonuses are not displayed in the HUD and its damage type is not limited to physical damage; nonetheless, they are considered as attack damage since it is dealt in one instance together with a unit's attack damage.

They are affected by attack classes (even when dealing magical damage). It is also not affected by percentage-based attack damage bonuses or reductions, but can be reduced with flat reductions (i.e. Damage Block).

Increasing Sources[]

Conditional Attack Damage Bonus Increasing Sources

Reducing Sources[]

Conditional Attack Damage Bonus Reducing Sources


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