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Arc Warden
Arc Warden icon.png
Strength attribute symbol.png
Agility attribute symbol.png
Intelligence attribute symbol.png
22 + 2.6
20 + 3
24 + 2.6
Level 0 1 15 25 30
Health 200 640 1360 2120 2420
+0.25 +2.45 +6.09 +9.89 +11.39
Mana 75 363 795 1251 1431
+0 +1.2 +3.02 +4.92 +5.67
Armor -1 2.33 9.33 16.33 19.17
Damage Block -
Magic Resistance 25%
Status Resistance 0%
Damage 31‒37 51‒57 93‒99 135‒141 152‒158
Attack Rate 0.59/s 0.71/s 0.95/s 1.2/s 1.3/s
Attack Range Ranged 625 (800)
Attack Speed ▶️ 100 (1.7s BAT)
Attack Animation 0.3+0.7
Projectile Speed 900
Movement Speed ▶️ 285
Turn Rate Takes 0.15s to turn 180°. 0.7
Collision Size 24
Vision Range (G) 1800 • 800
Legs 2
Gib Type Ethereal
Ability Upgrades
Upgradable by Aghanim's Scepter.
Upgradable by Aghanim's Shard.
Spark Wraith
Magnetic Field
Creates a copy of himself to split push.
A splintered fragment of the same primordial power as the Ancients themselves, Zet endeavors to end the disharmony among the warring factions through whatever means necessary. Solitary foes are thrown into a volatile state of Flux, ripping away their health over time. Distorting space to generate a Protective Field sheltering around allies, evading and attacking with greater efficiency. Zet summons Spark Fragments of its former self that circles in place, and seek out nearby foes. Is there one Arc Warden, or two? Armed with the original's items and abilities, the Self's Tempest Double duplicates each spell and every attack, bringing twice the chaos to any fight.
Magnetic Field
Magnetic Field
Spark Wraith
Spark Wraith
Tempest Double
Roles: Carry Carry Escape Escape Nuker Nuker
Complexity: ★★★


Arc Warden minimap icon.pngZet, the Arc Warden
▶️ "It is not to aid the Ancients that this war is joined, but to destroy them both. This disunity must end."
Before the beginning of all, there existed a presence: a primordial mind, infinite, awesome, and set to inscrutable purpose. As the universe thundered into being, this mind was fragmented and scattered. Two among its greater fragments—who would come to be named Radiant and Dire--found themselves locked in vicious opposition, and began twisting all of creation to serve their conflict.

As war and cataclysm threatened the nascent cosmos, the will of a third fragment made itself known. Naming itself Zet, this intellect sought to resolve the disharmony and return all to perfect unity. Appalled by its kin's conflicting nature, Zet gathered the sum of its power. In a sudden flash, it overwhelmed its siblings, and fused the warring aspects into a stellar sphere before hurling them into the darkness to orbit a nondescript world. Harmony was restored, though only the barest fraction of Zet's strength remained. Setting its gaze on the prison, Zet chose to use its weakened power to serve as watchful warden until time's end. For uncounted aeons, this vigil stood.

Life flourished upon the world below, oblivious to the dangers imprisoned within the softly glowing moon, or of Zet's struggles to contain them. As the captives' eternal clash reverberated within, the surface of the prison shuddered, over time beginning to crack. Ultimately, Zet's depleted power proved insufficient to contain the breach, and at last the moon was shattered. The prison's ancient inhabitants had escaped to sow their conflict anew.

Flung to the farthest reaches by the prison's explosion, Zet was transformed by the dissonant energies of its former captives. No longer of single form and thought, its presence had become split among many—some lesser, some greater—each connected by a fleeting arc of consciousness. Struggling to suppress its own disunity, Zet sped toward the burgeoning conflict of its siblings, bending its fractured wills toward a singular conclusion: the aspects of the primordial mind must be made to reunite, or all must be destroyed lest the conflict spread further…


Flux icon.png
Infuses a lone enemy unit with swirling, volatile energy, slowing its movement speed and dealing damage over time. The effect is muted if another enemy unit is near the target.
Cast Animation: 0.3+0.77
Cast Range: 500/600/700/800 (Talent 675/775/875/975)
Search Radius: 225
Damage per Second: 15/30/45/60 (Talent 55/70/85/100)
Move Speed Slow: 20%/30%/40%/50%
Duration: 6 (Talent 8)
Cooldown: 16
Mana: 75
Modifiers [?]
An infinitesimal fraction of the power which imprisoned the Ancients.


  • If the target has allies or neutral creeps within the 225 search radius, the ability temporarily stops slowing and damaging the target, until it is alone again.
  • Checks for enemies and neutrals in 0.5-second intervals, beginning instantly upon cast. The slow updates based on the result of the checks.
  • Also deals damage in the same intervals, based on the checks, dealing 7.5/15/22.5/30 (Talent 27.5/35/42.5/50) damage, resulting in 13 (Talent 17) possible instances.
  • While Flux is muted, the particle effects on the target vanish, with only a red glow remaining on the unit, indicating the debuff is still there.
  • Can deal up to 97.5/195/292.5/390 damage to the target if all instances are applied (before reductions).
    • With the damage per second increasing Talent talent, it can deal up to 357.5/455/552.5/650 damage if all instances are applied.
    • With the duration increasing Talent talent, it can deal up to 127.5/255/382.5/510 damage if all instances are applied.
    • With the both Talent talents, it can deal up to 467.5/595/722.5/850 damage if all instances are applied.
    • The damage per second increasing Talent talent does not upgrade already existing instances of Flux.
  • Multiple casts on the same target fully stack, with all instances working independently from each other.

Magnetic Field
Magnetic Field icon.png
Generates a circular distortion field of magnetic energy that protects allied heroes and buildings within it by evading attacks coming from outside the field.
Cast Animation: 0.3+0
Cast Range: 900
Effect Radius: 300
Evasion: 100%
Attack Speed Bonus: 50/60/70/80 (Talent 90/100/110/120)
Aura Linger Duration: 0.1
Duration: 3.5/4.5/5.5/6.5
With Aghanim's Shard Magic Resistance Bonus: 40%
With Aghanim's Shard Enemy Move Speed Slow: 30%
With Aghanim's Shard Enemy Max Knockback Distance: 350
With Aghanim's Shard Enemy Knockback Duration: 0.3
Cooldown: 20
Mana: 50/70/90/110
Upgradable by Aghanim's Shard.
Aghanim's Shard Upgrade:
Magnetic Field slows pushes enemies out of the area when cast and slows them while they are in it, and provides allies in it with magic resistance.
Partially pierces spell immunity.
Fully affects spell immune allies.
Upgradable by Aghanim's Shard.
Does not affect spell immune enemies.
Modifiers [?]
Time and space are of little consequence to one as old as Zet.


  • The effects are provided by an aura. Its buff lingers for 0.1 seconds.
  • Does not evade attacks landing on allies when the source of the attack is within the field.
  • The evasion effect of fields from Arc Warden and its Arc Warden Tempest Double minimap icon.png Tempest Double works independently.
    • This means when an ally is within the intersection of two fields, attacks are evaded unless their source is also within the intersection.
  • Does not affect invulnerable units, so buildings are only affected when attackable.
  • The attack speed bonus of multiple Magnetic Fields does not stack.
  • Despite its visual effects, the effective area is a cylinder not a sphere.
  • The attack speed increasing Talent talent immediately upgrades all currently active Magnetic Fields, but not already placed buffs.
  • With Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard, Magnetic Field pushes every enemy within its 300 radius out of it upon cast.
    • The knockback is not a set distance. It pushes every enemy so that they are 350 range away from the center of the targeted area. So the minimum knockback distance is 50 and the maximum is 350.
    • The knockback duration is always 0.3, so the speed varies between 1166.67 — 166.67, depending on the knockback distance.
    • Enemies are not disabled during the knockback, and are, besides moving, able to act freely during it.
    • Can push units over impassable terrain. Any trees the knocked back unit collides with gets destroyed.
  • It also causes all already placed Magnetic Fields to immediately apply 40% magic resistance and 30% movement speed slow.
    • Increases both heroes and buildings' magic resistance within its 300 effect radius.
    • The movement speed slow of multiple fields stack additively with each and with other sources of movement speed slow.
    • Reduces enemies' movement speed by 60% by stacking two instances.
  • Stack multiplicatively with other sources of magic resistance.
    • Increases most heroes' total magic resistance to 55% (or 73% by stacking two instances).
    • Increases all buildings' total magic resistance to 40% (or 64% by stacking two instances).

Spark Wraith icon.png
Summons a Spark Wraith that slowly materializes and patrols a targeted area until an enemy comes within its range. Once a target has been found the wraith fuses with them, dealing magical damage and slowing the unit.
Cast Animation: 0.3+0.77
Cast Range: 2000
Search Radius: 375
Activation Delay: 2
Move Speed Slow: 100%
Damage: 100/180/260/340 (Talent 225/305/385/465)
Slow Duration: 0.4/0.5/0.6/0.7
Wraith Duration: 45
With Aghanim's Scepter Second Activation Delay: 2
Cooldown: 4
Mana: 80
Upgradable by Aghanim's Scepter.
Aghanim's Scepter Upgrade:
Causes Spark Wraiths to spawn a new Spark Wraith after impacting an enemy, which then starts its 2 second activation period.
Modifiers [?]
Lesser fragments of Zet's original self.


  • The Spark Wraith travels at a speed of 400.
  • Once the activation delay is over, it checks for enemies (including neutral creeps) in 0.2-second intervals and launches towards the first registered enemy.
  • If multiple enemies are within range after the delay, the closest enemy is targeted.
  • Deals damage based on the level upon cast of the ability. Leveling up Spark Wraith does not update the damage of already placed Spark Wraiths.
  • The wraith first applies the damage, then the debuff.
  • The Spark Wraith is fully visible to the enemy.
  • The activation delay is not included in the wraith's duration.
  • Provides 300 radius ground vision for its full duration. The vision does not linger.
  • The launched projectile also provides the same vision, which lingers for 3.34 seconds after reaching the target.
  • The damage increasing Talent talent immediately upgrades all already placed wraiths, including ones which already seek a target.
  • With Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter, Spark Wraiths create a secondary wraith immediately upon hitting the enemy.
    • These secondary wraiths have to go through a 2 seconds activation delay.
    • This effect only occurs once per Spark Wraith. Secondary Spark Wraiths cannot spawn new wraiths.

Arc Warden's icons at the side of the screen. The currently selected unit is highlighted.

Tempest Double
Tempest Double icon.png
No Target
The Self
Briefly refocusing its fractured elements into a single form, the Arc Warden is able to create a perfect electrical duplication of itself. The duplicate can use all of Arc Warden's current items and spells, except most consumables and items that drop on death. The duplicate has separate item and ability cooldowns. The Tempest Double gives bounty gold to enemies when killed. The Tempest Double loses its sense of self if he is too far away from Arc Warden and deals less attack damage.
Cast Animation: 0.15+0.5
Number of Doubles: 1
Duration: 18/22/26 (Talent 30/34/38)
Bounty: 180/240/300
Penalty Distance: 2000
Attack Damage Penalty: 50%
Talent Cooldown Reduction: 50%
Cooldown: 60/50/40
Cannot be cast while rooted or leashed.
Root Notes:
Does not prevent the Tempest Double from being teleported back to the Self.
Modifiers [?]
Ability Draft Notes
Ability Draft Notes:
This ability is not available in Ability Draft.
Warped by the power of its peers, Arc Warden becomes what it despises most: disharmony.


  • On the first cast of Tempest Double, the double is actually summoned. On every following cast, it is just healed or revived.
    • The double gets dispeled as if it died, removing all modifiers which are removed by death. This means most modifiers which persist through death are not removed.
    • Its cooldowns are not refreshed upon getting re-summoned, so all cooldowns from the previous cast carry over.
    • Resummoning the Tempest Double does not disjoint projectiles.
  • If the distance between Arc Warden and the Tempest Double gets greater than 2000, its total attack damage gets reduced by 50%.
  • Arc Warden and the Tempest Double are represented by an icon with health and mana bars for each on the top left corner of the screen.
    • When a Zet is selected, its icon becomes brighter. When a Zet takes damage, its icon blinks red.
  • The Tempest Double is visually distinguishable from the original Zet for everyone.
    • On the minimap, allies see the unique Arc Warden Tempest Double minimap icon.png minimap icon, while enemies see Arc Warden minimap icon.png Arc Warden's default icon.
  • The buffs of a consumed Moon Shard icon.png Moon Shard, Aghanim's Blessing icon.png Aghanim's Blessing and Aghanim's Shard icon.png Aghanim's Shard are copied as well.
    • However, other permanent modifiers (e.g. Duel, Intelligence Steal) are not.
    • Any permanent modifiers gained by the Tempest Double while alive are lost once it gets resummoned.
    • Abilities that grant effects for killing heroes (e.g. Flesh Heap, Track, etc.) do not do so when the killed hero is the Tempest Double.
  • The double is a clone and therefore treated exactly like a hero by all abilities, since it is not an illusion.
  • The double has a 180/240/300 Gold and a 180/240/300XP bounty. The gold is granted to the killing player, the experience is distributed like any other experience.
    • However, if the double is killed by creeps or buildings, the gold gets distributed as well, just like hero kills do when not killed by players.
  • The Tempest Double does not passively gain any experience like heroes usually do, so it does not leech experience from its allies.
    • Any experience the Double would have gained is transferred to Arc Warden, even if the Tempest Double was dead at the time.

Item Interactions[]

  • The cooldown of an item (carried by the Tempest Double and Arc Warden) is bound to the item itself, and not to the unit holding the item.
  • Item abilities' cooldowns are not refreshed upon re-summon, all cooldowns from the previous cast carry over.
  • Giving Arc Warden another neutral item which already is on cooldown from another hero, will still be on cooldown in Arc Warden's inventory.
    • However, it will be usable by the Tempest Double upon summon.
  • Items in Arc Warden's inventory that are still unusable due to the Backpack delay will be immediately available for the Tempest Double upon summon.
Aeon Disk icon.png
  • The Tempest Double's Combo Breaker cooldown works completely independent and it is not bound to Arc Warden's.
Refresher Orb icon.png
  • The Tempest Double has its own independent inventory and backpack, carrying the same item as the original Arc Warden does.
  • On each cast, its inventory gets updated and adapted to that of Arc Warden.
  • The Tempest Double can neither pick up, nor drop any items. It cannot be given items by allies or Arc Warden directly either.
  • Shareable items are not sharable on the Tempest Double.
  • Sets the item's toggled status (e.g. Radiance (Active) icon.png Radiance) and Power Treads icon.png Power Treads's selected attribute stats to match Arc Warden's as well.
  • Does not copy any muted items which Arc Warden has in its inventory (allied and enemy items alike).
Gem of True Sight icon.png
Divine Rapier icon.png
  • These items are not copied, due to their nature of dropping on death.
Hand of Midas icon.png
  • Using Transmute grants the gold and experience to Arc Warden.
Desolator icon.png
  • Any Soul Stealer charges the Tempest Double gains are granted to Arc Warden’s Desolator instead.
Echo Sabre icon.png
  • A melee Tempest Double (via Wolf Bite) gets the double attack, but cannot place Echo Strike’s slow debuff.
Skull Basher icon.png
Abyssal Blade icon.png
  • The Tempest Double gets the passive stats, but cannot Bash enemies.
Urn of Shadows icon.png
Spirit Vessel icon.png
  • The Tempest Double cannot gather its own charges, but copies the main’s charges upon summon.
Helm of the Dominator icon.png
Helm of the Overlord icon.png
  • The Tempest Double's helm goes on cooldown upon cast, without dominating the targeted creep, if Arc Warden is not carrying the same helm in his inventory or backpack.
Power Treads icon.png
Vambrace icon.png
  • Sets the item to whichever Strength attribute symbol.png / Agility attribute symbol.png / Intelligence attribute symbol.png attribute Arc Warden had selected upon summoned.
  • Both items' Switch Attribute abilities function independently.
Neutral Items
Consumables and Charged-based Items
  • Does not copy Consumables (except for Town Portal Scroll icon.png Town Portal Scroll).
  • The Tempest Double cannot consume Moon Shard icon.png Moon Shard, but it copies the permanent buff off of the original Arc Warden.
  • Set all charges of charge-based items (e.g. Holy Locket icon.png Holy Locket) and item abilities (e.g. Soul Stealer) to match the charges on Arc Warden, no matter how many the Tempest Double had left the last time it was summoned.
Black King Bar icon.png
  • The Tempest Double's Avatar duration works completely independent and it is not bound to Arc Warden's.


Hero Talents
+12s Tempest Double Duration25+50% Tempest Double Cooldown Reduction
+40 Flux Damage20+125 Spark Wraith Damage
+40 Magnetic Field Attack Speed15+2s Flux Duration
+225 Health10+175 Flux Cast Range
  • The health talent increases maximum health capacity, and keeps the current health percentage.

Recent Changes[]

Main Article: Arc Warden/Changelogs
  • Increased Agility attribute symbol.png agility gain from 2.5 to 3.
  • Increased Spark Wraith damage from 100/170/240/310 to 100/180/260/340.
  • The Arc Warden Tempest Double minimap icon.png Tempest Double now has a 50% total attack damage reduction when more than 2000 range away from Arc Warden minimap icon.png Arc Warden.
  • Talent Talents:
Level 15 right talent changed: +8 armor ➜ +2s Flux duration.
Level 25 right talent changed: 35% lifesteal ➜ 50% cooldown reduction for the Arc Warden Tempest Double minimap icon.png Tempest Double.
Level 25 right talent: 25% lifesteal increased to 35%.

Recommended Items[]

Starting items:

  • Tango icon.png Tango gives Arc Warden sustain in lane.
  • Faerie Fire icon.png Faerie Fire gives a bit of damage and can be a lifesaver.
  • Healing Salve icon.png Healing Salve restores large amount of health in the early game.
  • Iron Branch icon.png Iron Branch provides attribute bonuses and build into Magic Wand.
  • Slippers of Agility icon.png Slippers of Agility gives agility for Arc Warden to last hit early on and can later be built into a Wraith Band icon.png Wraith Band.
  • Magic Stick icon.png Magic Stick can be an alternative starting item if playing against casters.

Early game:

  • Boots of Speed icon.png Boots of Speed improves Arc Warden's mediocre movement speed and gives him some form of escape from enemies.
  • Magic Wand icon.png Magic Wand restores some health and mana, allowing Arc Warden to use his abilities and escape items like Hurricane Pike icon.png Hurricane Pike.
  • Hand of Midas icon.png Hand of Midas accelerates Arc Warden farming game. Keep track of its cooldown on Tempest Double to know when optimal times to use it are.

Mid game:

  • Boots of Travel 1 icon.png Boots of Travel gives Arc Warden map wide presence for fighting, pushing, and farming.
  • Maelstrom icon.png Maelstrom improves Arc Warden's farming, wave clear and fighting capabilities and later upgrades to Mjollnir icon.png Mjollnir or Gleipnir icon.png Gleipnir.
  • Gleipnir icon.png Gleipnir gives decent stats and crowd control, a good alternative. It's ideal for early to mid game skirmishes, as well as late game teamfights. The major disadvantage of the item is being countered heavily by dispels and lack of attack speed, although the active bypasses Linken's Sphere icon.png Linken's Sphere.
  • Mjollnir icon.png Mjollnir buffs both yours and your Tempest Double's attack speed as well as punishing enemies who attack either.
  • Manta Style icon.png Manta Style is a great item for mid-game fights, as it's component - Yasha icon.png Yasha - is one of the most cost-efficient items for agility heroes, giving Arc Warden much needed agility and movement speed. The active dispels some negative effects, and four illusions from Tempest Double and Zet can wreak havoc. The double's and the original's Manta Style are independent from and do not replace each other. The illusions also benefit from Magnetic Field, making them more resistant to physical attacks and speeding up their attack speed.

Late game:

  • Hurricane Pike icon.png Hurricane Pike lets Arc Warden stay in the back with the increased attack range, and gives him an escape that, if used by Tempest Double as well, can effectively double the distance traveled.
  • Monkey King Bar icon.png Monkey King Bar helps tremendously to counter evasion and highly armored heroes, while dealing less to those with high magic resistance.
  • Nullifier icon.png Nullifier allows Arc Warden to dispel and slow down enemies so they cannot be protected by defensive items like Glimmer Cape icon.png Glimmer Cape or Force Staff icon.png Force Staff. 80 damage and 8 armor for low price can't be ignored, either. An ideal item both to kite melee rightclickers like Sven minimap icon.png Sven and prevent heroes like Drow Ranger minimap icon.png Drow Ranger or Zeus minimap icon.png Zeus from escaping.
  • Scythe of Vyse icon.png Scythe of Vyse boosts Arc Warden's mana and mana regeneration to use abilities liberally. The Tempest Double can use hex as well, doubling the disabling duration. Take care with chain disabling, as the enemy may use Black King Bar icon.png Black King Bar right after.

Situational items:

  • Blink Dagger icon.png Blink Dagger allows offensive Arc Warden and Tempest Double to approach enemy targets and unleash their abilities and items quickly.
  • Shadow Blade icon.png Shadow Blade provides attack speed and attack damage, as well as invisibility for Arc Warden to escape or initiate on enemies. It can upgrade to Silver Edge icon.png Silver Edge to apply break, suppressing both offensive and defensive passives.
  • Bloodthorn icon.png Bloodthorn boosts mana regeneration as well as damage output with attack speed, attack damage, and True Strike. The silence also prevents much of retaliation or escape from enemies. Black King Bar icon.png Black King Bar and other dispel items can counter this effect, so take caution.
  • Black King Bar icon.png Black King Bar counters most disables so Arc Warden can attack and use items. It can also be used to send in the double in fights and staying back in safety with the main Arc Warden. The Double can use Avatar, but its duration is independent of the main Arc Warden's Black King Bar.
  • Butterfly icon.png Butterfly turns Arc Warden into a heavy hitter. His primary attribute is agility, so he benefits a lot from its attributes. The Tempest Double has no attack damage penalties like most illusions do, since it is not an illusion, so it can greatly increase Arc Warden's overall damage output. Arc Warden's two damaging spells deal both magical damage and do not scale. A Butterfly helps him keep on doing damage to the enemy in the late game. The attack damage he gets from the item is also great for pushing and synergizes very well with Magnetic Field.
  • Daedalus icon.png Daedalus, like Butterfly, significantly increases your damage output, as Arc Warden can constantly deliver crits thanks to the enormous attack speed boost provided by Magnetic Field. Note that this passives doesn't work against buildings.
  • Ethereal Blade icon.png Ethereal Blade can be useful in the late game, especially facing attack damage. Synergizes very well with Spark Wraith talents. Also gives 40 agility, so it can be considered even when focusing on attack damage.
  • Eye of Skadi icon.png Eye of Skadi increases Arc Warden's stats, HP and Mana. Its frost attack, synergizing it with Flux, his Tempest Double clone, and his Manta Style icon.png Manta Style Illusions, make it significantly harder for enemies to escape.
  • Desolator icon.png Desolator can be useful in the late game stage, which gives him 55 damage. It allows Arc Warden to eliminate enemy heroes, creeps, and towers much quickly, with the aid of his Illusions coming from Manta Style icon.png Manta Style from both the prime and Double Warden.






  • The line ▶️ "You will just have to accept this, and move on." is a reference to a Dota 2 based web cartoon The Dota 2 Reporter, where it is a recurring gag for the characters to question the game's logic, only to be answered by this line.
  • The lines ▶️ "Doggedly." and ▶️ "Hounding." are references to Arc Warden's former appearance in DotA, where its model was that of a Gnoll, a canine-like creature from Warcraft. Its rivalry lines towards Lycan minimap icon.png Lycan, ▶️ "Inferior form." and ▶️ "Apex predator, you are not. ", are also a nudge to this.
  • A lot of Arc Warden's lore and responses reference the work of the psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung.
    • Arc Warden's focal point of unification is based on the psychological concept of individuation. Put in simple terms, in Jungian Psychology, the concept of individuation is when the conscious ego combines with the unconscious shadow, creating "the Self". Arc Warden exclusively refers to itself as "The Self". Tempest Double's concept also references this, with Arc Warden representing the conscious ego, and the Tempest Double representing the unconscious shadow. As stated in the ability's lore, Arc Warden despises this ability, since it brings disharmony; Arc Warden can only be The Self if not split apart.
    • Some of Jung's work is also reflected in Arc Warden's abilities, like how Flux is only harmful when the target is alone, i.e. not united with their allies, or how Magnetic Field only works against enemies outside its area of effect. Spark Wraith's ability description also states that it affects its target by "fusing" with them.
    • The line ▶️ "From the Primordial Consciousness all came. Return to it, all must." refers to the pyschological concept of the Collective Unconscious, which refers to the unconscious mind and shared mental concepts. This term was also coined by Carl Gustav Jung.