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Abilities are unique skills that heroes and creeps have access to on the battlefield. They range from simple passive effects, to devastating explosions of energy, to complex, terrain changing feats. All heroes have four or more abilities, three or more basic abilities and an ultimate ability, that they can assign ability points to every time they level up. Every level in an ability makes it more powerful, sometimes increasing its mana cost as well.

Abilities can consume mana, and may also be placed on cooldown when used. Abilities that are on cooldown cannot be used until their cooldown timer is up, at which point they can be cast again. Abilities with low cooldowns are sometimes referred to as "spammable" abilities, because they can be used very frequently.

Upgrading Abilities[]

Ability levels for most heroes
Ability level Hero level for
regular ability
Hero level for
1 1 6
2 3 12
3 5 18
4 7 -
5 9 -
6 11 -
7 13 -

Every time a hero levels up, they earn an ability point, until their abilities are fully upgraded. The player can then spend the point to unlock one of the hero's abilities, or to upgrade an already learned ability. At the start of the game, all of a hero's abilities are locked, but they each start with one ability point which can be used at any time. Abilities cannot be used and do not have any effect if they are still locked. After an ability is unlocked, it can be upgraded several times. Basic abilities can be upgraded 3 more times, for a total of 4 levels, and a hero's ultimate ability can be upgraded 2 times, for a total of 3 levels at hero level 6/12/18.

The exceptions to this are:

  • Invoker minimap icon Invoker, who can upgrade his basic abilities 6 times (total of 7 levels).
  • Meepo minimap icon Meepo, who can upgrade his ultimate abilities on levels 4/11/18.

Upgrading abilities will make them more effective. Depending on the ability, upgrading the ability may increase the amount of damage, increase the duration of an ongoing effect such as a disable, or otherwise improve the ability.

Sometimes, upgrading abilities will also increase or decrease the mana cost. For example, each level in Earthshaker minimap icon Earthshaker's Fissure icon Fissure increases the damage it deals and the duration of its stun, but also increases its mana cost.

Besides directly leveling abilities, there are a few other ways to make abilities more powerful. Spell Amplification is a mechanic which increases the amount of damage of abilities slightly. Aghanim's Scepter icon Aghanim's Scepter and Aghanim's Shard icon Aghanim's Shard are special items which can enhance each hero in a unique way. Depending on the hero, it may enhance the power of their ultimate ability, improve one or more basic abilities, or in some cases, Aghanim's Scepter or Aghanim's Shard even grants an entire new ability.

Some heroes also have an ability that improves their other abilities further. For example, Ogre Magi minimap icon Ogre Magi's Multicast icon Multicast makes his other 3 abilities more powerful.

Basic Abilities[]

Basic abilities can be upgraded to a new level once every 2 levels. This means that a level 2 hero cannot upgrade a learned basic ability to level 2. Every 2 levels, a hero increases his maximum basic ability level by 1. Ultimate abilities can only be upgraded every 6 levels, starting from level 6. These ultimate abilities are usually more powerful than a hero's basic abilities.


A hero's last ability, which can usually be trained at level 6, level 12, and level 18, is called an ultimate. There is only one exception to this level restriction: Meepo minimap icon Meepo's Divided We Stand icon Divided We Stand, which can instead be upgraded at levels 4, 11, and 18.

Ultimates can be high-impact abilities that define a hero's strengths and playstyle; they often have a devastating effect and a long cooldown. In some cases however, they are not the main strength, but just synergize very well when combined with the other abilities. Some ultimates have a lower effect but are spammable due to a relatively short cooldown. Ultimate abilities can also be passive abilities.

Ultimates, unlike normal abilities, are usually able to target a unit under a spell immunity effect, such as Black King Bar icon Black King Bar. They will rarely damage such a unit, but other effects such as slows or stun will usually apply. This makes ultimates, especially those with stun effects, incredibly powerful, since enemy heroes cannot block the effects.


Some abilities comes together with sub-abilities. These extra abilities usually do nothing on their own and mostly are only active after the ability they come with was cast first, or in some cases, they serve as a set-up for other abilities.

Their tasks range from activating the effects of other abilities on demand, manipulate abilities or even fully cancel them when desired. Usually, these abilities are innate, or are unlocked after learning specific abilities.

Since these abilities usually have a very low or no cooldown at all, they usually do not trigger abilities which react on ability usage, like Magic Wand icon Magic Wand-based items' charge gain or Arcane Curse icon Arcane Curse's per ability cast penalty. Sub-abilities are automatically acquired with Spell Steal icon Spell Steal or Morph icon Morph together with the main ability. If the caster does not have the required item (e.g. Aghanim's Scepter icon Aghanim's Scepter or Aghanim's Shard icon Aghanim's Shard) for unlocking the sub-ability, the sub-ability does nothing.

1 This sub-ability proc all on-cast effects like a regular ability.

Innate Abilities[]

All heroes have the following innate abilities:

Hero Ability Description
Alchemist icon Alchemist link=Alchemist #Aghanim's Scepter Synth Aghanim's Scepter Synth Aghanim's Scepter icon Aghanim's Scepter has an active ability for Alchemist, allowing him to cast it on allied heroes.
Bane icon Bane link=Bane #Nightmare Nightmare Bane and illusions of him can deal attack damage to Nightmare icon Nightmared units without waking them up or transferring the Nightmare to them.
Earth Spirit icon Earth Spirit link=Earth Spirit #Stone Remnant Stone Remnant
Faceless Void icon Faceless Void Unknown icon Innate to Hero The bash from Skull Basher icon Skull Basher and Abyssal Blade icon Abyssal Blade is completely disabled for Faceless Void, even if Time Lock icon Time Lock is not leveled up.
Faceless Void icon Faceless Void link=Faceless Void #Chronosphere Chronosphere Faceless Void is immune to Chronosphere's disable, regardless of whose Chronosphere it is, and including all illusions based on him regardless of faction.
Invoker icon Invoker link=Invoker #Invoke Invoke The Invoke reagents (Quas / Wex / Exort) are also innate to Invoker.
Monkey King icon Monkey King link=Monkey King #Mischief Mischief
Pangolier icon Pangolier Unknown icon Innate to Hero Can perform any and all actions without requiring to be facing toward his targets.
Rubick icon Rubick link=Rubick #Telekinesis Telekinesis Other Telekinesis sources cannot be manually cast on Rubick.
Slardar icon Slardar Unknown icon Innate to Hero The bash from Skull Basher icon Skull Basher and Abyssal Blade icon Abyssal Blade is completely disabled for Slardar, even if Bash of the Deep icon Bash of the Deep is not leveled up.
Spirit Breaker icon Spirit Breaker Unknown icon Innate to Hero The bash from Skull Basher icon Skull Basher and Abyssal Blade icon Abyssal Blade is completely disabled for Spirit Breaker, even if Greater Bash icon Greater Bash is not leveled up.
Techies icon Techies link=Techies #Minefield Sign Minefield Sign Grants invulnerability to Proximity Mines icon Proximity Mines.
Treant Protector icon Treant Protector link=Treant Protector #Nature's Guise Nature's Guise Grants tree-walking.

Linked Abilities[]

Linked abilities are learned automatically when their counterpart ability is learned and vice versa. It usually has its own ability slot and automatically levels up with its counterpart ability. They are different from toggleable abilities with different states (e.g. Berserker's Rage icon Berserker's Rage) and sub-abilities.

Charge-based Abilities[]

Some abilities (both basic and ultimates) use an alternative cooldown system based on charges and a replenish time, with each ability cast consuming one of its charges.

1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon Aghanim's Shard.

Transformation Abilities[]

See also: Different Model and Hex

Transformation abilities generally change the hero's form while providing other stat bonuses, created illusions can benefit from the hero's current state with the remaining duration of the transformation buff. These abilities have a transformation time. Certain abilities may modify the hero's attack range (Melee melee and Ranged ranged) properties or other stats.

For Spell Steal icon Spell Steal and Ability Draft Notes Ability Draft, multiple transformation abilities' bonuses and reductions fully stack with each other:

  • All attack damage bonuses.
  • All movement speed effects (e.g. Shapeshift icon Shapeshift haste).
  • All attack modifiers.
  • All health, mana (and regenerations) altering effects.
  • Attack range definitions and notes fully apply.
  • Items that use different values for Melee melee and Ranged ranged heroes (e.g. Manta Style icon Manta Style) to now treat the caster's ranged type based on the ability notes.

Hex sources are generally not considered as transformation abilities as these sources only change the unit's current model.

1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon Aghanim's Shard.

Ability Types[]

An ability's type refers to how that ability's effects are applied.

For abilities listed by their ability and targeting type, see here.


Ability border active


Active abilities must be used in order to apply their effects. Active abilities can consume mana, have cooldowns, and usually have some method of targeting related to them. The majority of abilities are active abilities. They can be activated by pressing their associated Hotkey.

If an ability can target the caster, ↓↓ Double-tapping the Hotkey causes them to activate immediately on the caster.

Active abilities are indicated by a bevel around the icon, which makes them look like a button. When an ability gets used and enters its cast animation, the bevel turns green and the icon shifts, looking like a pressed button. When selecting a targeted ability, the icon and the bevel appear brighter until the ability gets deselected or the cast begins. Active abilities also have a hotkey displayed at the top left corner.


Ability border passive


Passive abilities apply their effects either permanently as soon as they are learned, or activate by themselves if the ability is learned and its requirements met. These requirements can range from attacking a unit, casting a spell or even getting attacked. Most passive abilities do not consume mana and usually do not have cooldowns, exceptions include Wraith King minimap icon Wraith King's Reincarnation icon Reincarnation. Most heroes have at least one passive ability, though not all do.

Passive abilities do not have a bevel and look like they are pressed into the hud. Since passive abilities cannot be used manually, their appearance never changes. Passive abilities only have an icon displayed upon learning.


Ability border autocast


Autocast abilities are special active abilities that can be toggled on or off, or manually cast.

  • Keyboard White Mouse Right Right Click on ability to toggle autocasting on or off.
  • Alt+Hotkey is the default hotkey to toggle autocasting on or off.

Disables such as silences and stuns do not prevent a unit from toggling its autocast abilities on or off. However, autocast abilities cannot be used when silenced as with all other spells. Most auto-castable spells are active attack modifiers, applying a modification to the user's attacks when activated. When toggled on, the ability will apply whenever possible. For example, Drow Ranger minimap icon Drow Ranger's Frost Arrows icon Frost Arrows will be used whenever she attacks a target. When toggled off, they will not be used and will not consume mana. When an active attack modifier is manually cast, it is partially treated as a spell cast instead of as an attack. This causes nearby enemy creeps to not aggro when using them that way. This is also known as orb walking.

Not all abilities with autocast are attack modifiers. A few of them are regular abilities, which, when toggled on, will automatically be cast when their requirements are met. An example of such is Ogre Magi minimap icon Ogre Magi's Bloodlust icon Bloodlust. When toggled on, Ogre Magi will automatically cast Bloodlust on nearby allied heroes.

Devour icon Devour is similar, but a special case, as toggling it on does not make Doom minimap icon Doom autocast Devour. Instead, the toggle state determines whether Doom will copy the target neutral creep's abilities or not. When toggled off, Doom does not acquire new neutral creep spells. When toggled on, he does.

Auto-castable abilities have almost the same appearance as regular active abilities. They also have a bevel which turns white when selected and green when casting. However, they do not turn green for attack modifiers. On top of that, they have a thicker second bevel behind the first bevel. This one glows orange when the ability gets set to autocast.

These are the only auto-castable active attack modifiers:

These are the only auto-castable active abilities:

Alternative Cast[]

Targeting Types[]

Active abilities and autocast abilities are targeted in different ways, depending on the effects of the ability.

No Target[]

Abilities with no target requirement are immediately cast as soon as its button is pressed. Many of these abilities do not have a cast time. However, they do not have an Instant Cast Animation (DOTA_ABILITY_BEHAVIOR_IMMEDIATE) instant cast time. They cannot directly target a unit or a point. They usually affect the caster or units around the caster. They can affect an area around the caster, or have a global effect.


Toggle abilities are always non-targetable. These abilities apply a periodic effect and often drain mana or health as long as they are toggled on. These effects can range from damaging or healing nearby allies, switching between attack types, and manipulating other abilities of the unit. If the toggle ability drains mana over time, it turns itself off once not having mana to support it anymore. They cannot be forcibly turned off by anyone but the player by pressing their button again, or by dying. Like regular spells, they cannot be used (in this case, turned On / Off) while affected by disables which prevent ability usage. However, once they are toggled on, they persist through any form of disabling, including silence.

All toggleable abilities have an Instant Cast Animation (DOTA_ABILITY_BEHAVIOR_IMMEDIATE) instant cast time by default.

Target Point[]

Ability area target indicator

Indicator of area target spells

Point-target abilities require the caster to target a point or an area. Upon pressing the Hotkey, the cursor turns into a crosshair that determines where the ability will be cast, or in which direction it will be cast. Point targeting abilities can have very varying effects. For some abilities, it merely determines the direction to launch an effect, for other abilities it determines an exact point where an effect will be applied.

Target Area[]

Area target abilities work like point target abilities, with the only difference being that they require the caster to target a whole area, instead of a point. Upon pressing such a spell's button, the cursor turns into a targeted area indicator which shows the area the ability will affect. Upon cast, these abilities usually affect the whole targeted area, or all units in the area. Some apply their effects once upon cast, and some apply a lasting effect which affects units which enter the area after cast.

Vector Targeting[]

Swashbuckle targeting

The vector targeting interface

A vector targeted spell requires two locations to be chosen. The first location determines the starting location of the spell, while the second location determines the direction. There are different ways to select the second location, based on which casting type is used:

  • Regular cast: Select the ability with its hotkey. Then move the cursor to the desired start location and hold down the left mouse button. Now move the cursor to aim toward the desired direction. Release the left mouse key to select the direction.
  • Quick cast on key up: Move the cursor to the desired start location, then press and hold the ability hotkey to set the start location. Now move the cursor to aim toward the desired direction. Release the ability hotkey to select the direction.
  • Quick cast on key down: Move the cursor to the desired start location, then press the ability hotkey to set the start location. Now move the cursor to aim toward the desired direction. Press the left mouse button to select the direction.
1 Requires Talent talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon Aghanim's Shard.

Target Unit[]

Target unit abilities require the caster to directly target a unit, and cannot be used on the ground. Upon pressing an ability's Hotkey, the cursor turns into a crosshair that determines on which unit the ability will be cast on. Most unit targeted abilities affect only the target. Abilities that apply their effect to a single unit are often called "single target abilities". When targeting a unit out of cast range, the caster follows the unit until it gets in cast range or the target cannot be targeted anymore (e.g. the target turns invisible).

While most target unit abilities require the caster to face to the direction of the target unit, the following abilities do not require facing target. They also have instant cast time.

1 Requires Talent Talent.
2a Requires Aghanim's Scepter icon Aghanim's Scepter.
2b Requires Aghanim's Shard icon Aghanim's Shard.
3 While channeling any ability/item.
4 While channeling Upgradable by Aghanim's Scepter. Sinister Gaze icon Sinister Gaze.


Ability unit target area indicator

Indicator of unit target spells with area effect

Some of the targeting types can appear combined.

Target Point or Unit[]

Some point targeted abilities may also be able to directly target a unit. In such cases, the spell is cast towards the targeted unit's current location. If the target unit is out of cast range, the caster follows it until it is within range and casts the spell on the unit's position. Even when the target moves during the cast animation, the spell is still cast on it, or launched towards it if it is a traveling effect. This does not cause the spell's actual effects to home in on the target.

Target Unit with Area Effect[]

  • A few single-target abilities have an effect which affects an area around the primary target. Like unit targeted abilities, these must be directly cast on units, and cannot be cast freely on any area. Such abilities have their own targeting cursor, which resembles the targeting cursor of ground targeted area spells. They have the same blue ring like area targeted spells, and have pulsing gapped rings which start at the center and move outwards. At the center, they have a small yellow reticule, indicating that a unit must be targeted.

Cast Event[]

A small number of spells react on abilities being cast, meaning they trigger certain effects when affected units cast abilities. Abilities reacting on spell casts are:

1 Does not react on abilities with no cooldown.
2 Reacts on Phase Shift icon Phase Shift, despite it being listed below.
3 Requires Aghanim's Shard icon Aghanim's Shard.

For balance reasons, the following abilities do not trigger any on-cast event:

There is one sub-ability and one active attack modifier which do trigger on-cast events. Whether they are intended to do so or not is unknown. This includes the following:

Recent Changes[]

Main Article: Abilities/Changelogs
    Attribute Bonus icon Attribute Bonus to every hero except Invoker minimap icon Invoker.
    • The level-up button is located below the Talent talent tree.
    • Permanently grants the hero 2 of Strength attribute symbol / Agility attribute symbol / Intelligence attribute symbol all attributes when leveled up.
    • Can be leveled up a total of 7 times. Has no level requirements, so it can be leveled up at any level.
    • If no other abilities or talents can be leveled up upon reaching a new level, Attribute Bonus levels up automatically.
  • Rescaled ultimate ability level requirements from 6/11/16 to 6/12/18.
    Attribute Bonus icon Attribute Bonus from every hero (including Invoker minimap icon Invoker).
  • Invoke icon Invoke is no longer an upgradable ability. [?]
  • Increased Divided We Stand icon Divided We Stand level requirement from 3/10/17 to 3/10/18.